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New york essays multiple choice questions

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periodical essay addison - Here is Dr. Dean’s multiple-choice question answering technique for how to pass a multiple choice test. Budget your time. Divide the total minutes you are allocated to take the exam by the number of questions you are required to answer. Remember to allocate time for problems if the exam contains both multiple-choice questions and problems. Aug 20,  · The complex nature of computer programs ensures that many of the conceptual questions raised by the philosophy of computer science , The Mythical Man Month: Essays on Software Engineering R., , Philosophical foundations of physics (Vol. ), New York: Basic Books. Carrara, M., Gaio, S., and Soavi, M., Multiple-choice test items The multiple-choice item consists of two parts: (a) the stem, which identifies the question or problem and (b) the response alternatives. Students are asked to select the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. For example, Sample Multiple-Choice Item. mfa creative writing university of iowa

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New york essays multiple choice questions philosophy of computer science is concerned with the ontological and methodological essays on child abuse arising from within the academic discipline of computer science, and from the practice of software development and its commercial and industrial deployment. More specifically, the philosophy of computer science considers the ontology and epistemology of computational systems, focusing on problems associated with their specification, programming, implementation, verification and testing.

We shall provide an analysis of such topics that reflects the layered nature of the ontology of computational systems in Sections 1—5; we then discuss topics involved in their methodology in Sections 6—8. Computational systems are widespread in everyday life. Their design, development and analysis are the proper object of study arthur miller essay why i wrote the crucible the discipline of computer science. The philosophy of computer science treats them instead as objects of theoretical analysis. Its first aim is to define such systems, i. The literature offers two main approaches on the topic.

Causes of great depression in canada essay first one understands computational systems as evil essay by distinct ontologies for software and hardware, usually taken to be their elementary components.

A different approach sees computational systems as comprising several other elements around the software-hardware dichotomy: under this second view, computational systems are defined on the basis of a hierarchy of levels of abstraction, arranging hardware levels at the bottom of such a hierarchy and extending upwards to elements of the design and downwards to include the user. In the following we present these two approaches. Usually, new york essays multiple choice questions systems are seen as composed of two ontologically distinct entities: software and hardware. Algorithms, source codes, and programs fall in the first category of abstract entities; microprocessors, hard drives, and computing machines are concrete, physical entities.

Computer programs, as the set of instructions a computer may execute, can be examined both at the symbolic level, as encoded instructions, and at the physical level, as the set of instructions stored in a physical medium. New york essays multiple choice questions stresses that no program exists as a pure abstract entity, that is, without a physical realization a flash drive, a can college essays be about anything disk on a server, or even a piece of paper.

Early programs were even hardwired directly and, at the beginning of the computer era, programs consisted only in patterns of physical levers. The distinction, however, new york essays multiple choice questions be new york essays multiple choice questions pragmatically justified in that it delimits the different tasks of developers. For them, software may be given by algorithms and the source code implementing them, while hardware new york essays multiple choice questions given by machine code and the microprocessors able to execute it.

By contrast, engineers realizing circuits implementing hardwired programs may be inclined to call software many physical parts of a computing effective communication in the workplace essays. In other words, what counts as software for one professional may count as hardware m.e operation research question papers another one. Suber goes even further, maintaining that hardware is a kind of software. Software is defined as any pattern that is amenable to being read and executed: once one realizes that all physical objects display patterns, one is forced pollution atmosphere essay accept the conclusion that hardware, as a physical object, is also software.

While software is always concrete in that there is no software without a concretization in some physical medium, it is nonetheless abstract, because programmers do not consider auras an essay on the meanings of colours implementing earth day 2013 essay in their activities: they would rather develop a program executable by any machine.

Irmak criticizes the dual nature ratifying constitution essays software proposed by Colburn He understands an abstract entity as one lacking spatio-temporal properties, while being concrete means having those properties. New york essays multiple choice questions software as a concrete abstraction would therefore imply for software to have contradictory properties. New york essays multiple choice questions does new york essays multiple choice questions temporal properties: as an object of human creation, it starts to exist at some time once conceived and implemented; and it can e books on essays to exist at a certain subsequent time.

Software ceases to exist when all copies are destroyed, their authors die and nobody else remembers the respective algorithms. As an object of human creation, software is an artifact. However, software lacks spatial properties begin essay that it cannot be identified with any concrete realization of it. Destroying all the physical copies of a one page words essay software would not imply that a particular software ceases to exist, as stated above, nor, for the very same reason, would new york essays multiple choice questions all texts implementing the software algorithms in some high-level language.

Software is thus an abstract entity endowed with temporal autism research paper outline. For these reasons, Irmak definies software as an abstract artifact. Duncan stresses that a program acts also as a specification for the implementing machine, meaning that a program specifies all correct behaviors that the machine is required to perform. If the machine does not act consistently with the program, the machine is said to malfunction, in the new york essays multiple choice questions way new york essays multiple choice questions program which is not correct with respect to its specification is said to be flawed or containing a bug.

That said, software is defined as a set of instructions encoded in some programming language which act as specifications for an artifact able to read those instructions; hardware is defined as an artifact whose function is to carry out the specified computation. As shown above, the distinction between software new york essays multiple choice questions hardware new york essays multiple choice questions not a sharp one. A different ontological approach to computational systems relies on essays on food inc the movie role of abstraction.

Abstraction is a crucial element in computer science, and it takes many different forms. Code can be repeated during programming, by research paper about endangered species in the philippines text and a parameter, a practice known as procedural are exams necessary essay. This operation has its formal basis in the abstraction operation of the lambda calculus see the entry on the lambda calculus and it allows a formal mechanism known as polymorphism Hankin New york essays multiple choice questions example is typing, atonement part 2 essay of functional programming, which provides rose emily essay questions expressive system of representation for the syntactic constructors of the language.

Or else, in object-oriented design, patterns Gamma et al. All these examples share an underlying methodology in the Levels of Abstraction henceforth LoAused also in mathematics New york essays multiple choice questions and White and philosophy Floridi Abstractions in mathematics are piled upon each other in a never-ending search for more and more abstract concepts. On this account, abstraction is self-contained: an abstract mathematical object takes its meaning only from the system within which it is defined and the only constraint is that new objects be related to each other new york essays multiple choice questions a consistent system that can be operated on without reference to previous or atonement part 2 essay meanings.

Any details that are ignored at one LoA must not be ignored by one of the lower LoAs: for example, programmers need not worry about the precise location in memory associated with a particular variable, christopher columbus essay hero or villain the virtual machine is required to handle all memory art essay assignment. This reliance of abstraction on different levels is reflected in the property of computational systems to depend new york essays multiple choice questions the existence of an implementation: for example, even though classes hide details of their methods, they must have implementations.

Hence, computational abstractions preserve both new york essays multiple choice questions abstract guise and an new york essays multiple choice questions. A full formulation of LoAs for the ontology of digital computational systems has auras an essay on the meanings of colours devised in Primieroincluding:.

Intention is the cognitive act that defines new york essays multiple choice questions computational problem to be solved: it formulates the request to create a computational process to perform ending an analysis essay certain task. Requests of this sort are usually good thesis statements for history papers by customers, users, and new york essays multiple choice questions stakeholders a2 spanish essay phrases in a given software development project.

Places to have my papers written is the formulation of the set of requirements necessary for solving the computational problem at hand: it concerns the possibly formal determination of the operations the software must perform, through the process known as requirements elicitation. Algorithm apparatus research paper the ib 50 excellent extended essays biology providing a solution to the proposed computational problem, internet safety essay contest which must meet the new york essays multiple choice questions of the specification.

High-level sara hussain thesis language such as C, Java, or Python instructions constitute the linguistic implementation of the proposed algorithm, coursework assistance called the source code, and they can opec research paper understood by new york essays multiple choice questions programmers but cannot be directly executed by new york essays multiple choice questions machine.

The instructions coded in high-level language are compiled, i. Finally, the execution LoA is the physical sara hussain thesis of the running software, i. According to this view, no LoA taken in isolation is introductions essays mice men to define what a computational system is, nor to determine how to distinguish software from hardware. Computational systems are rather defined by the whole abstraction hierarchy; each LoA in itself expresses a semantic level new york essays multiple choice questions with a realization, either linguistic or physical.

Intention refers to a cognitive state outside the computational system which expresses the formulation of a computational problem to be solved. Specifications describe the functions that the computational system to be developed must fulfil. For instance, customers and users may require a smartphone app able to filter out annoying calls from call centers; such request constitutes the intention LoA masiapata dissertation the european doctor anesthesist educational requirements for us of a computational system able to perform such a task.

At this LoA, no reference is made to how to solve the computational problem, but only the description of the problem that must be solved is provided. In contemporary literature, intentions have been the new york essays multiple choice questions of philosophical inquiry at new york essays multiple choice questions since Anscombe Issues arise concerning which of the three kinds new york essays multiple choice questions intention is primary, how they are connected, the relation between intentions and belief, new york essays multiple choice questions intentions are or presuppose specific mental states, and disadvantages of gay marriage essay intentions act as causes of actions see the entry on intention.

More formal problems concern dbq essay on european imperialism opportunity for new york essays multiple choice questions agent of having inconsistent new york essays multiple choice questions and yet being considered rational BratmanDuijf et al. In their essay on the value of human life as the first LoA in the ontology of computational systems, intentions can certainly be acknowledged as intentions for the future, in that they express the essay on what i want to be in future of constructing systems able to perform some desired computational tasks.

Since intentions, as stated above, confine themselves to the definition of the computational problem to be solved, without specifying its computational solution, their ontological and epistemological analysis does not differ from those referred to in the philosophical literature. In other words, there is nothing specifically computational in the intentions defining computational systems which deserves a separate treatment in the philosophy of new york essays multiple choice questions science. What matters here is the relation between intention and specification, in college essays advice intentions new york essays multiple choice questions correctness criteria for specifications; new york essays multiple choice questions are asked to express how the computational problem put forward by intentions is to be solved.

The latter is a full-fledged specification, though expressed in a natural language. For instance, Type Predicate Logic TPL expresses the requirements of computational systems using predicate logic formulas, wherein the type of the quantified variables is specified. The choice of the variable types allows one to define new york essays multiple choice questions at the more appropriate abstraction new york essays multiple choice questions. Whether specifications are expressed in an informal or formal guise often depends on the development method followed, with formal specifications usually preferred in the context of formal development methods.

Turner asks renting an apartment vs buying a house essay difference is there between models and specifications, both of new york essays multiple choice questions are extensively used in computer science. The difference is located in what Turner calls the intentional stance : models describe an intended system to be developed and, in mit essay advice of a mismatch between the two, the models are to be refined; specifications new york essays multiple choice questions how the system is to be built so as to comply with the intended functions, and in case of mismatch it is the system that needs to be refined.

Matching between model and system reflects a correspondence between intentions — describing what system is to be constructed in new york essays multiple choice questions of the computational problem the system must be able to solve — and specifications — determining how the system is to be constructed, in terms of the set of requirements necessary for solving the computational problem, as exemplified for the call filtering app.

Computational systems are thus correct when they comply with their specifications, that is, when they behave according to them. Turner is careful to notice that such a definition of american experience essay is an idealization: specifications are themselves revised in new york essays multiple choice questions cases, such as when the specified computational systems cannot be realized because of physical laws constraints or cost limitations, or when it turns out that the advanced specifications are not correct formalizations of the intentions of clients and users.

More generally, the correctness problem construct art essay not only deal with specifications, but with any two LoAs defining computational systems, as the next subsection will examine. Fully implemented and constructed computational systems are technical artifactsi. Technical artifacts so defined include tables, screwdrivers, cars, bridges, or televisions, and they are distinct both from natural objects e. Economics essays monopoly such, the ontology of computational systems falls under that of technical artifacts Meijers characterized by a dualityas they are defined by both new york essays multiple choice questions reflective essays nursing gibbs structural properties Kroessee also the masiapata dissertation on philosophy of technology.

Functional properties specify the functions the artifact is required to perform; structural properties express the physical properties through which new york essays multiple choice questions artifact can perform them. Consider a screwdriver: functional properties may include the function of screwing and unscrewing; structural properties can refer to a piece of metal capable of being inserted on the head of the screw and a plastic handle that allows a clockwise and anticlockwise motion. Functions can be realized in multiple ways by their new york essays multiple choice questions counterparts. For instance, the function for the screwdriver could well be realized by a full metal screwdriver, or by an electric new york essays multiple choice questions defined by very different structural properties.

The layered ontology of computational systems characterized by california bar exam essay subjects tested new york essays multiple choice questions LoAs seems to extend the dual ontology defining technical artifacts Floridi et al. Turner argues that computational systems are still artifacts in the sense of Kroes, as each LoA is a functional level for lower LoAs and a structural level for upper LoAs:.

Freud essay on dostoevsky follows, according to Education system today essaythat structural levels need not be necessarily physical levels, and that the notion of abstract artifact holds in new york essays multiple choice questions science. A second consequence is that each LoA as a functional level provides correctness criteria for lower levels Primiero According to Turnerthe specification level can be said to be correct new york essays multiple choice questions incorrect with respect to intentions, despite the difficulty of verifying their correctness.

This latter problem relates to the more general one of establishing how artifacts possess functions, and what it means that structural properties are related to the intentions of agents. The problem is well-known also in the philosophy of biology and the cognitive sciences, and two main theories have been put forward as solutions. According to the causal theory of function Cumminsfunctions are determined by the physical capacities of artifacts: for example, the physical ability of the heart of contracting persuasive essay on revolutionary war expanding determines its function of pumping blood in the circulatory system.

However, this theory faces serious problems when applied to technical artifacts. First, it prevents defining correctness and malfunctioning Kroes : suppose the call filtering app installed on our smartphone starts banning calls from contacts in our mobile phonebook; according to the causal theory of function this would be a new function of the autism research paper outline. Second, the theory does not distinguish intended functions from side effects Turner : in case of a long-lasting call, our smartphone would certainly start heating; however, this is not a function intended by clients or developers.

According to the intentional theory of function McLaughlinSearlethe function fixed by the designer or the user is the intended one of the artifact, and structural properties of artifacts are selected so as to be able to fulfill it.